Beginner’s Guide to Hindi Verbs – क्रिया क्या होते है?


I was ———— Book.

He ———— to Seattle.

Did any of these make sense to you?  No, right?

While you may assume some action is being done, you can’t be sure unless someone specifies. This isn’t just the case in English Grammar, it is an integral part of Hindi grammar as well.

And it is not just about the assumption of action, you can’t even structure a sentence in Hindi without Hindi verbs. So let us take a look at this integral part of Hindi grammar.

क्रिया क्या होते है? What is a Verb?

Just as in the English language, a verb is a word used to express some action(कार्य), feeling(भाव), or existence(अस्तित्व). It tells us something about the subject.

Every action either happens or is done by someone.

कर्ता (Karta)

The one who does the work is called कर्ता ( karta – doer)

धातु ( Dhatu)

The root form of a verb is called धातु (dhatu)

Example: भागता, भागा , भागना.

In all these, भाग is the dhatu or root form of the verb.

क्रिया के भेद. Types of Hindi Verbs

In Hindi, verbs can be divided into two different categories.

  1. प्रयोग के आधार पर  (on the basis of use)
  2. रचना के आधार पर (on the basis of composition)

1. प्रयोग के आधार (on the basis of usage)

on the basis of usage, there are two different types

  1. सकर्मक क्रिया (Transitive verb)
  2. अकर्मक क्रिया (Intransitive verb)

सकर्मक क्रिया (Transitive Verbs)

सकर्मक (transitive) means with or with action.

The verb which has an effect on the action rather than on the doer is called सकर्मक क्रिया transitive verb.

  • मै ख़ुशी से हॅसता हूँ।
  • बच्चे जोरों से रो रहे हैं।
  • एलेक्स खाना खा रही है।

सकर्मक क्रिया के भेद (Types of transitive verbs)

There are two types of transitive verbs in Hindi

  1. एककर्मक क्रिया
    1. A verb that has only one action is called एककर्मक क्रिया।
  2. द्विकर्मक क्रिया
    1. A verb in which there are two actions is called दवीकर्मक क्रिया।

अकर्मक क्रिया (Intransitive Verbs)

अकर्मक क्रिया (Intransitive verb) means without action or without action.

Actions which do not require action and the result of actions falls on the doer, are called  अकर्मक क्रिया (intransitive verbs).

In other words, the verbs whose fruit and business are received by the doer are called अकर्मक क्रिया intransitive verbs.


  • वे हसते है।
  • बच्ची रो रही है।
  • एलेक्स खा रही है।

2. रचना के आधार पर (on the basis of composition)

There are 10 distinctions of verbs on the basis of the composition.

  1. मुख्य  क्रिया ( Main verbs)
  2. प्रेरणार्थक क्रिया (Insprational verbs)
  3. संयुक्त क्रिया (Compund Verbs)
  4. नामधातु क्रिया
  5. पूर्वकारक क्रिया (Anterior Verbs)
  6. अनुकरणात्मक क्रिया (Imitative Verbs)
  7. सहायक क्रिया (Auxillary Verb)
  8. रंजक क्रिया
  9. सरल क्रिया (simple verb)
  10. नामिक क्रिया (mixed kriya)

Let’s take a look at each of them.

मुख्य क्रिया (Main verbs)

A part of the main verb which gives the main meaning is called the main verb or the verb expressing the main actions of the subject or action is called the ‘main verb’.


  • जॉन दूध लाया।
  • मेगन ने दूकान खोली।

प्रेरणार्थक क्रिया (Inspirational verbs)

The verbs from which it is known that the doer, by not doing the work themselves, inspires others to do the work or get someone else, then the verb is called प्रेरणार्थक क्रिया (Inspirational verbs).

There are two subjects in an inspirational verb

  1. प्रेरक कर्ता (inspirational doer) – the one who inspires
  2. प्रेरित कर्ता (the inspired doer) – the one who is inspired, or the one who is being inspired.

There are two types of  प्रेरणार्थक क्रिया (Inspirational verbs).

  1. प्रथम प्रेरणार्थक क्रिया ( First inspirational verb)
  2. द्वितीय प्रेरणार्थक क्रिया (Second inspirational verb)


  • पिता ने बेटे से अख़बार मँगवाया।
  • मालकिन नौकर से सफाई करवाती है।

संयुक्त क्रिया (Compound Verbs)

In Hindi, the verb is sometimes manifested by one word and sometimes by more than one word. Therefore, we can say that when two or more verbs join together to form a complete verb, then they are called संयुक्त क्रिया (compound verbs.)


  • में टेक्सास गया था।
  • एमी पढ़ रही है।

In the first sentence, there are two verbs = गया + था

in the second sentence there are three verbs = पढ़ + रही + है

नामधातु क्रिया

The verb that is formed by adding suffixes at the end of Namdhatu verb nouns, pronouns and adjectives, is called नामधातु क्रिया Namdhatu verb.

with  संज्ञा :

    • फिल्म + आना = फिल्माना
    • दुःख + न = दुखना

with विशेषण :

  • साठ + इयाना = सठियाना
  • गरम + आना = गरमाना

with सर्वनाम

    • अपना + आना = अपनाना

पूर्वकालिक क्रिया (Preterite verbs)

The verb whose completion is found before the second verb is called the pre-tense verb, that is, the action which takes place before the main verb is called the pre-verb.

Check out EnthuZiastic Hindi Classes for fun, interactive learning experience.

The preceding verb is formed by adding ‘kar’ with the root.


  • लारा ने एक बार सुनकर कविता लिखी |

in the sentence, लिखी se pehle सुनकर verb is used.

अनुकरणात्मक क्रिया (Imitative Verbs)

Words which are formed on imitation of sounds or on imitation of the preceding sound. Such verbs are called अनुकरणात्मक क्रिया imitative verbs.


  • थप – थप = थपथपाना
  • झन – झन = झनझनाना

सहायक क्रिया (Auxillary Verb)

Verbs which do not give the main meaning in the verb phrase and is helpful to it, that is, whatever part remains apart from the main verb, it is called सहायक क्रिया (auxiliary verb).


  • पिताजी अखबार पढ़ चुके हैं।
  • माता जी खाना बनाने लगी।

रंजक क्रिया

When a verb joins with the main verb to make the main verb more effective, then it is called रंजक क्रिया. Not every reflexive verb can be used with every main verb.


ब्रॉडी को रोना आ गया।

रोया = मुख्या क्रिया

गया = सहायक क्रिया

आना = रंजक क्रिया

वह अधिकतर घुमा  है।

घुमा = मुख्या क्रिया

है = सहायक क्रिया

करना = रंजक क्रिया

सरल क्रिया (simple verb)

A verb that is prevalent in the language like customary words. We also call this verb the root verb.

This verb is neither derived from any other verb nor is it formed from the addition of more than one verb form, that’s why we call it a root verb.

Example: आना , जाना , लिखना , पढ़ना

नामिक क्रिया (Mixed kriya)

Under mixed verb, the first part is of a noun, adjective, or adverb and the second part is of a verb.


with संज्ञा

  • याद + आना = याद याना
  • भूक + लगाना = भूक लगाना

with विशेषण

  • बुरा + लगना = बुरा लगना
  • सुन्दर + दिखना = सुन्दर दिखना

with क्रियाविशेषण

  • बाहर + करना = बाहर करना
  • भीतर + करना = भीतर करना

Hindi Verbs Exercise

रिक्त स्थानों की पूर्ती उचित क्रियाओं से कीजिये। (Fill in the blanks)

  1. डॉक्टर ने रोगी को इंजेक्शन ___________ ।            (लगा / लगया )
  2. अडम ने किताब मे __________ ।              ( लिखना है / लिखा )
  3. शोन की दुकान मे _________ ।                             ( मिलेगी / मिलूँगी )
  4. रोनी फूटबाल _______ रहा है।                               ( खेलेगा / खेल )
  5. मैरी ________ रही है।                                          ( पढाई कर / पड़ेगी )


नीचे लिखे वाक्यों में क्रिया पहचान कर लिखिए। 

  1. एनी बालक को सुलाती है।                          _______
  2. बॉनी है रही है।                                         _______
  3. माँ बच्चे को नहलाती है।                            _______
  4. पिता जी बाज़ार से सब्जियां और फल ले आए।  _______
  5. वे रोज शाम को बेसबॉल खेलने जाते है।        _______
  6. हम सब ने एक फिल्म देखि।                      _______
  7. एलेक्स ने सुन्दर चित्र बनाया।                    _______
  8. माता भोजन पका रही है।               _______
  9. घोडा घास खा रहा है।                                _______
  10. बारिश गिर रही है।                                   _______
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